PLINK: Whole genome data analysis toolset plink...
Last original PLINK release is v1.07 (10-Oct-2009); PLINK 1.9 is now available for beta-testing

Whole genome association analysis toolset

Introduction | Basics | Download | Reference | Formats | Data management | Summary stats | Filters | Stratification | IBS/IBD | Association | Family-based | Permutation | LD calcualtions | Haplotypes | Conditional tests | Proxy association | Imputation | Dosage data | Meta-analysis | Result annotation | Clumping | Gene Report | Epistasis | Rare CNVs | Common CNPs | R-plugins | SNP annotation | Simulation | Profiles | ID helper | Resources | Flow chart | Misc. | FAQ | gPLINK

1. Introduction

2. Basic information

3. Download and general notes

4. Command reference table

5. Basic usage/data formats 6. Data management

7. Summary stats 8. Inclusion thresholds 9. Population stratification 10. IBS/IBD estimation 11. Association 12. Family-based association 13. Permutation procedures 14. LD calculations 15. Multimarker tests 16. Conditional haplotype tests 17. Proxy association 18. Imputation (beta) 19. Dosage data 20. Meta-analysis 21. Annotation 22. LD-based results clumping 23. Gene-based report 24. Epistasis 25. Rare CNVs 26. Common CNPs 27. R-plugins 28. Annotation web-lookup 29. Simulation tools 30. Profile scoring 31. ID helper 32. Resources 33. Flow-chart 34. Miscellaneous 35. FAQ & Hints

36. gPLINK

Conditional haplotype-based association testing

This page describes PLINK functions that are aimed at dissecting a haplotypic association. These functions largely include and extend the functionality offered in the older WHAP software package, which is no longer supported.

For reference, the main ways of specifying conditional haplotype tests, that modify the behaviour of main --chap command, are given here; they are also described in more detail below. Each row here is mutually exclusive, e.g. you would not want to, or be able to, specify --control and --alt-snp at the same time:
  • Test whether SNPs have independent haplotyic effects (--independent-effect SNP{,SNP,SNP})
  • Test whether a set of SNPs explain an omnibus association (--control SNP{,SNP,...})
  • Test whether a specific set of haplotypes explain an omnibus association (--control HAPLOTYPE{,HAPLOTYPE,...})
  • Test specific haplotypes for association (--specific-haplotype HAPLOTYPE)
  • Specify alternative and null haplotypic models in terms of sets of SNPs (--alt-snp SNP{,SNP-SNP,...} and/or --null-snp SNP{,SNP-SNP,...})
  • Specify alternative and null haplotypic models in terms of sets of haplotypes (--alt-group HAPLOTYPE{,HAPLOTYPE,...} and/or --null-group HAPLOTYPE{,HAPLOTYPE,...} )
  • Test a one or more simple SNP effects, potentially controlling for haplotype effects (--test-snp SNP{,SNP-SNP,...})
It is also possible to include one or more continuous or binary covariates, which can include other SNPs outside of the phased region.

This page contains the following sections: The value of using --chap over --hap-assoc is that covariates can be included, and more complex conditional tests can be specified. The value of using --hap-assoc (described here) over --chap is that it is designed to iterate over very many SNPs in a single go, whereas the --chap test is more designed to focus on one specific set of SNPs. The --hap-logistic and --hap-linear commands, described here, are also designed for large numbers of tests; they do allow for covariates and permutation, but not the conditional tests described below.

Basic usage for conditional haplotype-based testing

The --chap command is used in conjunction with the --hap-snps command to specify a set of SNPs to phase, form haplotypes and test for association (in samples of unreated individuals only):

plink --bfile mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap

which generates a file
The --hap-snps command can take a comma-delimited list of SNPs, including ranges, e.g. if the MAP file specifies the following SNPs and physical positions:
     1 rs1001 0 101200
     1 rs1002 0 102030
     1 rs1003 0 107394
     1 rs1004 0 107499
     1 rs1005 0 113990
then the command
     --hap-snps rs1001-rs1003,rs1005
includes all SNPs except rs1004, for example. The hyphen/minus symbol specifies all SNPs within a range (based on sorted physical position).

NOTE No spaces are allowed in this kind of comma-delimited list. Also, note that currently this will not work if SNP names have hypen characters in them. In this case, to use a different delimter for any ranges specified on the command line, add the "--d" flag (which can be any non-whitespace character except a comma (although be cautious if using characters with special meanings on command lines)
     --d + --hap-snps SNP-A10001+SNP-A10020
to obtain a range between SNP-A10001 and SNP-A10020.

The default test is an omnibus haplotype test: that is, if there are H haplotypes, then --chap performs an H-1 df test comparing the alternate (each haplotype having a unqiue effect) versus the null (no haplotypes having any different effect). In each case, one haplotype is arbitrarily chosen to be the reference haplotype. The coefficients must be interpreted with respect to that haplotype, but otherwise the coding makes no difference.

For binary disease traits, the test is based on a likelihood ratio test. For continuous traits, the test is based on an F-test comparing the alternate and null models. For continuous traits, the --chap command also displays the proportion of variance in the outcome explained by the regression model (R-squared) as well as an adjusted R-squared (that takes model complexity into account).

For example, here is a plink.chap output file representing a basic omnibus test:
     +++ PLINK conditional haplotype test results +++ 

     5 SNPs, and 6 common haplotypes ( MHF >= 0.01 ) from 32 possible

      CHR           BP          SNP   A1   A2          F
        1       101200       rs1001    C    A       0.45
        1       102030       rs1002    A    C     0.2362
        1       107394       rs1003    A    C     0.4325
        1       107499       rs1004    T    G     0.2362
        1       113990       rs1005    A    C     0.4487

     Haplogrouping: each {set} allowed a unique effect
     Alternate model
        { AAATA }  { AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC }  { CCCGC }  { ACCGC }  
     Null model

          HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)        OR(N)
        -------       ------      -------      -------
          AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)      (-ref-)
          AACTA       0.0673        2.619         |
          CCCGA        0.212       0.8942         |
          ACAGC        0.264       0.6839         |
          CCCGC        0.237        1.025         |
          ACCGC       0.0502        1.038         |
        -------       ------      -------      -------

     Model comparison test statistics:

                                Alternate       Null
                       -2LL :       535.4      554.5 

       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 19.11
                              df = 5
                              p = 0.001836
There are several points to note:
  • At the top of the output, PLINK lists the SNPs (SNP) involved in the test, their chromosomal (CHR) and base-pair (BP) positions, their alleles (A1 and A2) and the minor allele frequency (F).
  • It is reported that there are 5 common haplotypes: this filter (default value of 0.01) can be changed by adding, for example, the --mhf 0.05 command (minimum haplotype frequency).
  • The next section presents the haplogrouping under the null and alternate models. If two haplotypes are in the same { set }, it means they are treated as identical in terms of their effect on phenotype (i.e. a single regression coefficient is used for that group). For the basic omnibus test the haplogrouping will always take this simple form: under the alternate all haplotypes in their own set, whilst under the null all haplotypes are in one set. This output is more useful in interpreting some of the other conditional haplotype tests that are introduced below.
  • The next section contains the estimated regression coefficients for each haplotype under the alternate and null models, as well as the frequency (FREQ) of each haplotype. For continuous traits, the coefficients are labelled BETA; for disease traits they are labelled OR and are in fact transformed to be odds ratios, i.e. exp(beta). The (-ref-) indicates which haplotype has been selected to be the baseline, reference category. If a haplotype has instead a pipe (vertical bar) | symbol, it implies that this haplotype is grouped with the one above it (and so it will not have a regression coefficient of its own). In the case of this simple null model as shown here, this implies that all haplotypes are equated with AAATA, the reference haplotype (i.e. there is no effect of any haplotype).
  • When the null model is not so straightforward (as in the examples below), the rows are separated into the null-model haplogroups for clarity. In this case, certain sub-null model comparisons are also presented, to the right of the table of coefficients: these are shown and described below.
  • The final section presents the overall model statistics: for a linear trait these are the R-squared (sometimes called the coefficient of determination) and adjusted R-squared, as well as the F-test. For disease traits, as in this case, only the sample log-likelihood under each model (-2LL) and the likelihood ratio test are presented. In both cases, the degrees of freedom is the number of parameters in the alternate model minus the number in the null model.
The interpretation of this particular analysis would be that overall variation at this locus appears to influence the trait, with p = 0.001836. Using the commands introduced below, we can perform various conditional tests to explore this omnibus result.

HINT To obtain confidence intervals on the estimated odds ratios or regression coefficients, add the flag
     --ci 0.95
for example; the output will now be as follows:
          HAPLO         FREQ                        OR(A)                        OR(N)
        -------       ------      -----------------------      -----------------------
          AAATA        0.169                      (-ref-)                      (-ref-)
          AACTA       0.0673          2.619 (1.24; 5.54 )                         |
          CCCGA        0.212          0.8942 (0.57; 1.4 )                         |
          ACAGC        0.264        0.6839 (0.438; 1.07 )                         |
          CCCGC        0.237          1.025 (0.657; 1.6 )                         |
          ACCGC       0.0502         1.038 (0.507; 2.12 )                         |
        -------       ------      -----------------------      -----------------------

Specifying the type of test

If no other commands are given, the --chap test will perform an omnibus haplotypic association test. Various other options can be used to refine the type of test. In this section we introduce three commonly used tests; in the section below we introduce a more general way in which any two (nested) models can be compared.

Testing a specific haplotype
It is possible to specify a particular haplotype to be tested against all others: for example, CCCGA
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs10001-rs10005 --chap --specific-haplotype CCCGA

This creates the following two haplogroupings:
     Alternate model
     Null model
which hopefully begins to indicate how these groupings should be interpreted in relation to the tests they imply.

The main body of the output is:
          HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)        OR(N) 
        -------       ------      -------      ------- 
          AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)      (-ref-) 
          AACTA      0.06728         |            |    
          ACAGC       0.2635         |            |    
          CCCGC       0.2375         |            |    
          ACCGC      0.05022         |            |    
          CCCGA       0.2125       0.9153         |    
        -------       ------      -------      ------- 
which shows that now under the alternate all haplotypes are grouped together except for CCCGA; versus all other haplotypes, this has an estimated odds ratio of 0.9153.

NOTE Of course, the estimated odds ratio for CCCGA was different in the first example given above (when it was 0.8942) because the reference category was different (it was then only AAATA as opposed to all other SNPs). In other words, remember that the odds ratios are only interpretable in relation to some specific baseline, reference category.

Finally, we see the model compariston test is non-significant
       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 0.2653
                              df = 1
                              p = 0.6065

The option --each-vs-others will add an extra column to the output, if there is more than one haplotype-grouping under the alternate model, which provides p-values for haplotype-specific tests of that haplotye (or haplotype group) versus all others. For example,
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs10001-rs10005 --chap --each-vs-others

which produces output with the new SPEC(A) field
          HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)      SPEC(A)        OR(N)
        -------       ------      -------    ---------      -------
          AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)        0.537      (-ref-)
          AACTA      0.06728        2.619    0.0001791         |
          CCCGA       0.2125       0.8942       0.6065         |
          ACAGC       0.2635       0.6839     0.003466         |
          CCCGC       0.2375        1.025       0.5132         |
          ACCGC      0.05022        1.038        0.787         |
        -------       ------      -------      -------    ---------
which contains p-values for all haplotype-specific tests (i.e. as above, the haplotype CCCGA has the p-value of 0.6065 as above, i.e. that haplotype versus all others). The benefit of the --specific-haplotype command versus --each-vs-others is that it also produces the odds ratio for that haplotype.

These haplotype specific tests are of course similar to the basic test given by the --hap-assoc command, e.g.
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs10001-rs10005 --hap-assoc

which generates the output file
which contains the line
    WIN1      CCCGA  0.205   0.22  0.2689   1  0.6041  rs1001|rs1002|rs1003|rs1004|rs1005
This command frames the test in a slightly different way and presents different statistics (i.e. it does not use logistic regression, case and control frequencies are presented instead of odds ratios, etc) but the p-value is, as expected, very similar (p=0.6041 from --hap-assoc versus p=0.6065 from the --chap test). Note that they are not expected to be numerically identical however.

Testing whether SNPs have independent effects
It is possible to ask whether one or more SNPs have an effect that is independent of the other SNPs in the model, framing the question in terms of haplotypes. This conditional test essentially stratifies by the haplotyic background: for the SNP(s) under scruntiny, we only compare the alleles/haplotypes that have a similar haplotypic background.

Before proceeding to the conditional haplotype tests, let's first consider the simple, single SNP effects for the example dataset:
./plink --file mydata --assoc

which generates the file plink.assoc which is as follows:
      CHR      SNP        BP   A1      F_A      F_U   A2      CHISQ          P        OR 
        1   rs1001    101200    C   0.4525   0.4475    A     0.0202      0.887      1.02 
        1   rs1002    102030    A   0.2775    0.195    C      7.544    0.00602     1.586 
        1   rs1003    107394    A    0.395     0.47    C      4.584    0.03228    0.7362 
        1   rs1004    107499    T   0.2775    0.195    G      7.544    0.00602     1.586 
        1   rs1005    113990    A   0.4825    0.415    C      3.644    0.05495     1.314 
Here we see that SNPs rs1002 and rs1004 have the strongest associations, although rs1003 and rs1005 show marginal trends.

Next, to obtain a quick view of the LD in this small region, we can generate the matrix of r-squared (LD) values (i.e. note: this is using r-squared as a measure of LD, which is distinct from the coefficient of determination which descibes the fitted regression models).
./plink --file mydata --r2 --ld-window-r2 0

This command, by default, only outputs values for SNPs that have an r-squared greater than 0.2, are within 1 Mb and 10 SNPs of each other; these can be changed with the options --ld-window-r2, ld-window-kb and --ld-window respectively; in this case, we requested all SNPs to be reported with --ld-window-r2. The file
contains the fields
      CHR_A    SNP_A  CHR_B    SNP_B           R2 
          1   rs1001      1   rs1002     0.260769 
          1   rs1001      1   rs1003     0.628703 
          1   rs1001      1   rs1004     0.260769 
          1   rs1001      1   rs1005  0.000357147 
          1   rs1002      1   rs1003    0.0964906 
          1   rs1002      1   rs1004            1 
          1   rs1002      1   rs1005     0.398912 
          1   rs1003      1   rs1004    0.0964906 
          1   rs1003      1   rs1005   0.00919232 
          1   rs1004      1   rs1005     0.398912 
Here we see that rs1002 and rs1004 are in complete LD, but that there is also moderate (r-squared above 0.2) LD between many other pairs of SNPs.

Moving then to the conditional tests: using the dataset above, to test for an independent effect of rs1003, for example (independent of the haplotypic effects formed by the remaining SNPs), one would issue the command:
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --independent-effect rs1003

The haplogroupings implied by this command are
     Alternate model
        { AAATA }  { AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC }  { CCCGC }  { ACCGC }  
     Null model
        { AAATA, AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC, ACCGC }  { CCCGC }  
The test SNP, rs1003, is the middle SNP in the 5-SNP haplotype (an A/C SNP). In comparison to the alternate model, we now see that the null is formed by grouping two pairs of haplotypes; each pair is identical except for rs1003: i.e.
     { AAATA, AACTA } 
     { ACAGC, ACCGC }
In each case here, the comparison between alternate and null models is to equate the effects of these haplotypes (i.e. implicitly providing a test for whether rs1003 has any effect). A haplotype such as CCCGA is effectively left out of the analysis: although it contains a C allele for rs1003, we never see the corresponding CCAGA haplotype to perform a stratified analysis.

The main output for this test is shown below:
          HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)        OR(N)    SUBNULL P 
        -------       ------      -------      -------  ----------- 
          AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)      (-ref-)     0.008016 
          AACTA      0.06728        2.619         |    

          CCCGA       0.2125       0.8942       0.6907          n/a 

          ACAGC       0.2635       0.6839       0.5628       0.2643 
          ACCGC      0.05022        1.038         |    

          CCCGC       0.2375        1.025       0.7897          n/a 
        -------       ------      -------      -------  ----------- 

     Model comparison test statistics:
                                Alternate       Null
                       -2LL :       535.4      544.4 

       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 8.982
                              df = 2
                              p = 0.01121
There are two new features to note: first, the null model is no longer a simple unitary group; the rows are separated out into the groups defined by the null model. That is, null does not mean no effect of any haplotype; rather, it is used in the statistical sense of the default, more simple model compared to the alternate: the model which we want to try to nullify.

Under the null, haplotypes AAATA and AACTA have a single parameter (both are the reference category); haplotypes ACAGC and ACCGC have an estimated odds ratio of 0.5628 (versus the reference group).

The second new addition is of the sub-null test p-values in the right-most column. These will only appear when the null model contains more than one group for which there was more than one group in the alternate model (i.e. groups in which haplotype effects have been equated within group). Whereas the likelihood ratio test at the bottom is a joint 2df test (for whether the two sets of haplotypes can be equated; equivalently, for whether rs1003 has an independent effect), the sub-model p-values represent a test of just that part of the model, i.e. a 1 df likelihood ratio test for whether AAATA and AACTA do indeed have similar odds ratios has the p-value of 0.008016.

One way of interpreting these results would be that rs1003 has an effect on the AA-TA haplotype background, but not the AC-GC background. However, drawing such a conclusion in this simple manner is not advised -- p-values should not be interpreted in this direct manner, and also the power of the test will vary by the frequency of the haplotype background. ( A feature will be added that enables one to ask specifically whether or not the effect of rs1003 varies between these two haplotype backgrounds: this involves the specification of linear constraints between parameters.)

Note that it is not always possible to perform a test of independent effects: for example, consider rs1002: given the set of common haplotypes under study, we see it is perfectly correlated with rs1004 (i.e. we only ever see the AT and CG haplotypes for these two SNPs. We therefore never see both alleles of rs1002 on the same haplotypic background. As such, the null model is the same as the alternate: PLINK therefore reports
       Likelihood ratio test:  ( not a valid comparison: identical models, df = 0 )

It is also possible to see whether more than one SNP has an independent effect: this is still a haplotypic test (of haplotypes formed by the two or more SNPs), but the test is stratified by the haplotypic background formed by the remaining SNPs. For example:
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --independent-effect rs1003,rs1004

leads to the haplogrouping
     Alternate model
        { AAATA }  { AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC }  { CCCGC }  { ACCGC }  
     Null model
        { AAATA, AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC, ACCGC }  { CCCGC }  
and the main test statistics
          HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)        OR(N)    SUBNULL P 
        -------       ------      -------      -------  ----------- 
          AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)      (-ref-)     0.008016 
          AACTA      0.06728        2.619         |    

          CCCGA       0.2125       0.8942       0.6907          n/a 

          ACAGC       0.2635       0.6839       0.5628       0.2643 
          ACCGC      0.05022        1.038         |    

          CCCGC       0.2375        1.025       0.7897          n/a 
        -------       ------      -------      -------  ----------- 

     Model comparison test statistics:

                                Alternate       Null
                       -2LL :       535.4      544.4 

       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 8.982
                              df = 2
                              p = 0.01121
In this particular case, this test of independent effects of rs1003 and rs1004 happens to give exactly the same results as the test of rs1003 by itself, which will be made clear from examining the haplogroupings. Note that, in both cases, the test is a two degree of freedom test.
Omnibus test controlling for X
To perform an omnibus test but controlling for a particular haplotype of set of haplotypes, you can use the --control command. The haplotypes can either be directly specified, or implied through the list of SNPs specified. This test is a complement to the --independent-effect test.

Typically, one would use this test in the case of a significant omnibus assocation result. For example, we could ask whether we still see the association even if we control for haplotypes of SNPs rs1002 and rs1004 (the two most highly associated SNPs, that are in complete LD with each other):
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --control rs1002,rs1004

which gives implied haplogroupings:
     Alternate model
        { AAATA }  { AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC }  { CCCGC }  { ACCGC }  
     Null model
In this case, rather than make the null model a single set, the --control command separates the haplotypes out into distinct groups based on the sub-haplotypes at SNPs rs1002 and rs1004, i.e.
The regression coefficient table is:
     HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)        OR(N)    SUBNULL P 
   -------       ------      -------      -------  ----------- 
     AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)      (-ref-)     0.008016 
     AACTA      0.06728        2.619         |    

     CCCGA       0.2125       0.8942       0.6603       0.2087 
     ACAGC       0.2635       0.6839         |    
     CCCGC       0.2375        1.025         |    
     ACCGC      0.05022        1.038         |    
   -------       ------      -------      -------  ----------- 
and model comparison statistics are:
                                Alternate       Null
                       -2LL :       535.4      547.7 

       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 12.32
                              df = 4
                              p = 0.01515
This is a 4 df test because 4 haplotypes are grouped with another haplotype (i.e. the 4 | symbols in the output).

One would conclude from this analysis that there is still a significant effect at this locus even controlling from the haplotypic effects of rs1002 and rs1004. In otherwords, the command
     --control rs1002,rs1004
is identical to
     --indepedent-effect rs1001,rs1003,rs1005
in this instance. Unlike the --independent-effect, the --control command does allow for hapltoype(s) to be specified, instead of SNPs: for example, we might ask whether the omnibus test is significant controlling for ACAGC:
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --control ACAGC

which gives the following haplogrouping
     Alternate model
        { AAATA }  { AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC }  { CCCGC }  { ACCGC }  
     Null model
i.e., effectively leaving ACAGC out of the test, and this table of coefficients
          HAPLO         FREQ        OR(A)        OR(N) 
        -------       ------      -------      ------- 
          AAATA        0.169      (-ref-)      (-ref-) 
          AACTA      0.06728        2.619         |    
          CCCGA       0.2125       0.8942         |    
          CCCGC       0.2375        1.025         |    
          ACCGC      0.05022        1.038         |    

          ACAGC       0.2635       0.6839        0.624 
        -------       ------      -------      ------- 
     Model comparison test statistics:

                                Alternate       Null
                       -2LL :       535.4        546 

       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 10.56
                              df = 4
                              p = 0.03194
In otherwords, there is still a marginal omnibus assocation (p=0.032) after controlling for ACAGC. Repeating this test for each haplotype:
      HAPLOTYPE (--control)      P-VALUE (omnibus association)
          AAATA                  0.0008895   
          AACTA                  0.2803
          CCCGA                  0.0008441
          CCCGC                  0.0009084
          ACCGC                  0.0007738
          ACAGC                  0.03194
which would suggest that there is no significant signal after controlling for AACTA, at the p=0.05 level at least. This is consistent with the true model: these data are in fact simulated, and AACTA was in fact the disease haplotype.

Finally, it is possible to specify multiple, comma-delimited haplotypes for the --control command.

General specification of haplotype groupings

Rather than use any of the above convenience functions for specifying tests, one can directly specify the haplogrouping, in one of two ways: by manually specifying the haplotypes, or the SNPs, to include under both alternate and null models.
Manually specifying haplotypes
With the --alt-group and --null-group commands, it is possible to directly specify the haplogrouping. These commands take a comma-delimited list of sets, where the equals symbol is used to specify equality of haplotypes. For example, the command
     --independent-effect rs1003
which gives rise to the following haplogroups
     Alternate model
        { AAATA }  { AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC }  { CCCGC }  { ACCGC }  
     Null model
        { AAATA, AACTA }  { CCCGA }  { ACAGC, ACCGC }  { CCCGC }  
which could instead have been directly specified
Note how the = symbol is used to define sets. When using these commands, the default for the alternate is as specified above, so this command could have been excluded. Also, it is not necessary to specify all haplotypes: if a haplotype is not specified, it will revert to its default grouping (i.e. depending on whether this is for the alternate or null). In other words, the same effect could have been achieved just with the single command
     --null-group AAATA=AACTA,ACAGC=ACCGC
Finally, there are two wild-cards, one of which can be used in these two commands:
     *    Group all haplotypes not otherwise explicitly mentioned 
     %    Separate all haplotypes not otherwise explicitly mentioned
In other words, implicitly there is always a base-line of
     --alt-group %
     --null-group *
To just equate two haplotypes, for instance, but keeping everything else the same, one might use
     --null-group AAATA=AACTA,%
i.e. which means "under the null, allow each haplotype to have a unique effect (%), with the exception of AACTA and AACTA, which should be grouped with each other".

Manually specifying SNPs
With the --alt-snp and --null-snp commands, it is possible to specify which SNPs should be used to form haplotypes. By default, all SNPs are included in the alternate, no SNPs are included in the null: this leads to the default haplogrouping of the omnibus test.

To illustrate this command, by reference to the --independent-effect specification, for example: the command
     --independent-effect rs1003
is equivalent to
     --alt-snp rs1001-rs1005 --null-snp rs1003

Covariates and additional SNPs

Covariates can be included with the --covar option, the same as for --linear and --logistic models. By default, all covariates in that file with be used. Covariates always feature under both the alternate and null models.
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --covar myfile.cov

which generates an additional set of entries in the plink.chap output file, representing the coefficients (no other statistical tests are performed for the covariates, i.e. no p-values, etc):
          COVAR                     OR(A)        OR(N)
          -----                   -------      -------
           COV1                    0.7834       0.8499
In a similar manner, additional SNPs can be included, which can be SNPs other than those included in the --hap-snps command. These SNPs are not considered in any way during the phasing process: the alleles are simply entered in an allelic dosage manner. The command --condition and a list of SNPs, or --condition-list followed by a filename with a list of SNP names, includes these.
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --condition rs1006

which adds the following lines in the output file
           SNPS                     OR(A)        OR(N)
          -----                   -------      -------
         rs1006                     1.038        2.899
Unlike for standard covariates, it is also possible to request that a SNP effect be dropped under the null model, which allows, for example, for a test of a SNP controlling for a set of haplotypes at a different locus: here, one would want to include all haplotype effects under the null, and use the --test-snp command to drop one or more of the conditioning SNPs:
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --null-group % --condition rs1006 --test-snp rs1006

which would instead show
           SNPS                     OR(A)        OR(N)
          -----                   -------      -------
         rs1006                     1.038    (dropped)
and an extra degree of freedom would be added to the model comparison test. As the --null-group % command was used to effectively control for all haplotypic effects whilst testing this particular SNP, rs1006, the test will be a 1 df test,
       Likelihood ratio test: chi-square = 0.0007377
                              df = 1
                              p = 0.9783
It is also possible to specify more than one conditioning SNP (and to drop none, some or all of these under the null): for example,
./plink --file mydata --hap-snps rs1001-rs1005 --chap --null-group % --condition rs1006,rs1007 --test-snp rs1006

General setting of linear constraints

{ to be completed }
This document last modified Wednesday, 25-Jan-2017 11:39:28 EST